Wednesday, August 29, 2012

The 48th/150th: Bloodletting at 2nd Bull Run: The Casualties

As we commemorate the 150th Anniversary of the 2nd Battle of Bull Run, it is important to remember those who there gave their lives. For the 48th Pennsylvania Infantry, this would be their first major battle of the war; in terms of numbers lost, it would also prove to be their worst battle of the entire four-year conflict. While earlier posts provided a brief history of their actions there, this post presents a list of all those killed, wounded, captured, or missing.
48th Pennsylvania Casualties

2nd Bull Run: August 29, 1862

Total Casualties=155

Killed in Action/Mortally Wounded {42}

1st Sergeant B. G. Otto: Co. A. Mortally Wounded; Died October 15, 1862
Private John Leiser:Co. A. Killed
Private John Springer: Co. A. Mortally Wounded; Died October 3, 1862
Private Lewis M. Reece: Co. B. Killed
Private Nicholas Shitehour: Co. B. Mortally Wounded; Died January 1863
Sergeant Oliver C. Hatch: Co. C. Killed
Private John Wiser: Co. C. Killed
Private Barney Gettley: Co. C. Killed
Private James Low: Co. C. Mortally Wounded; Died October 30, 1862
Sergeant William Bambrick: Co. D. Mortally Wounded; Died September 12, 1862
Corporal George Ramer: Co. D. Mortally Wounded; Died September 6, 1862
Private George Hartz: Co. D. Mortally Wounded; Died December 20, 1862
Private Charles Miller: Co. D. Killed
Private John Sullivan: Co. D. Mortally Wounded; Died October 8, 1862
Sergeant Stafford Johnson: Co. E. Mortally Wounded
Corporal William Mackey: Co. E. Killed
Private John Baker: Co. E. Killed
Private James Farrell: Co. E; Mortally Wounded; Died September 25, 1862
Private William Moose: Co. E. Mortally Wounded; Died in Pottsville
Private Thomas Major: Co. E. Mortally Wounded; Died October 31, 1862
Private Michael Brennan: Co. E. Killed
Private Hugh McFeely: Co. E. Killed
Private Simon (or Samuel) Moyer: Co. E. Killed
Corporal Henry Jenkins: Co. F. Killed
Corporal William Hopkins: Co. F. Killed
Private Thomas J. Thomas: Co. F. Mortally Wounded; Died January 1864
Private John J. Morrison: CO. F. Mortally Wounded; Died October 23, 1862
Private Peter Quinn: Co. F. Killed
Private Michael Killrain: Co. F. Killed
Private John Haggerty: Co. F. Killed
Private James Muldowney: Co. G. Mortally Wounded
Private William Smith: Co. G. Mortally Wounded; Died September 14, 1862
Private John Farne: Co. G. Mortally Wounded; Died November 8, 1862
Private William Nagle: Co. H. Killed
Private Paul White: Co. H. Killed
Sergeant Samuel Petit: Co. H. Killed
Sergeant Thomas Kelly: Co. H. Killed
Private Hesgian Link: Co. I. Killed
Private Charles F. Leiser: Co. I. Killed
Captain Henry A.M. Filbert: Co. K. Killed 
Sergeant Roland D. Filbert: Co. K. Killed
Corporal Patrick Handley: Co. K. Mortally Wounded; Died October 25, 1862 


Wounded {56}

Lieutenant John D. Bertolette (Acting Assistant Adjutant General)
Private George Albright: Co. A
Private William Betz: Co. A
Private Elias Britton: Co. A
Private George Miller: Co. A
Private Andrew Neely:Co. A
Private Joel Marshall: Co. A
Sergeant Thomas Johnson: Co. B
Sergeant Jno. Bassler: Co. B
Corporal Jacob Freshly: Co. B
Private John Lucid: Co. B
Thomas Whalen: Co. C
Private Jonas Geiger: Co. C
Private Solomon Strausser: Co. C
Private Edward Brennan: Co. C
Lieutenant Henry P. Owens: Co. D
Private John W. Derr: Co. D
Private Frank Dorward: Co. D
Private Henry Gottschall: Co. D
Private Philip Kantner: Co. D
Private Peter C. Kreiger: Co. D
Private David T. Kreiger: Co. D
Sergeant J. H. Fisher: Co. E
Fifer John Cameron: Co. E
Private Michael Bohannon: Co. E
Private James Berger, Sr.: Co. E
Private James Berger, Jr.: Co. E
Private Henry Lord: Co. E
Private Abraham Kleckner: Co. E
Private Robert Thompson: Co. E
Corporal John Devine: Co. F
Corporal George N. Douden: Co. F
Private Stephen Taggart: Co. F
Private John Powell: Co. F
Private Thomas Lloyd: Co. F
Private William Jenkins: Co. F
Corporal Charles Evans: Co. G
Private M. Berger: Co. G
Private John Grace: Co. G
Private Lewis Quinn: Co. G
Private Joshua Reed: Co. G
Private John Shaw: Co. G
Private John Wonders: Co. G
Private John Willingham: Co. G
Private William Dreibelbeis: Co. H
Private J.T. Wildermuth: Co. H
Private George T. Eisenhuth: Co. H
Private George W. Christian: Co. H
Corporal Benjamin F. Kershner: Co. I
Private Rudolph Rumble: Co. I
Private Eli Fenstermaker: Co. K
Private James Day: Co. K
Private Milton Ludwig: Co. K
Private James Cavanaugh: Co. K
Private James Dullard: Co. K
Private Joseph Burgess: Co. K

Captured/Missing In Action {57}  

Corporal John Taylor: Co. A
Corporal John Brobst: Co. A
Private Israel Britton: Co. A
Private Henry Davis: Co. A
Private William H. Koch: Co. A
Private George Livingston: Co. A
Private Daniel Leiser: Co. A
Private Morgan Simon: Co. A
Private F.W. Simon: Co. A
Sergeant Philip Hughes: Co. B
Private William Bradley: Co. B
Private Henry Copeland: Co. B
Private John Evans: Co. B
Private Joseph Rahny: Co. B
Private Samuel Stanley: Co. B
Corporal John Roarty: Co. C
Private Murt Brennan: Co. C
Private John Jones: Co. C
Private William Larkin: Co. C
Corporal Leonard Shrishorn: Co. D
Corporal Israel T. Vankannon: Co. D
Corporal William Timmons: Co. D
Private Mattis Bailey: Co. D
Private Eli Derr: Co. D
Private Isaiah Kline: Co. D
Private Joseph Kuhns: Co. D
Private Bodo Otto: Co. D
Corporal D. McAllister: Co. E
Private Alfred Barlow: Co. E
Private Jefferson Canfield: Co. E
Private James Greener: Co. E
Private Joseph Lord: Co. E
Private John McSorely: Co. E
Private John Morrissey: Co. F
Private Samuel Dunkerly: Co. F
Private John Devine: Co. F
Private Richard Littlehales: Co. F
Private Thomas Lyshon: Co. F
Lieutenant Henry Clay Jackson: Co. G
Corporal Joel Betz: Co. G
Sergeant Samuel Ruch: Co. H
Corporal Thomas H. Sillyman: Co. H 
Private John Benedict: Co. H
Private William Huber: Co. H
Private Daniel Lauer: Co. H
Private John W. Ray: Co. H
Private Israel Schmehl: Co. H
Sergeant Theodore Pletz: Co. I
Private Christopher Seward: Co. I
Corporal Thomas Brennan: Co. K
Private David Boyer: Co. K
Private W.D. Dress: Co. K
Private Daniel Shaneley: Co. K
Private W. Fenstermaker: Co. K
Private Hiram Spears: Co. K
Private William T. Reed: Co. K
Private William Lavenberger: Co. K

The 48th/150th: Bloodletting at 2nd Bull Run: Part 1/4

This week marks the 150th Anniversary of the Battle of 2nd Bull Run, or 2nd Manassas. Fought August 28-31, 1862, 2nd Bull Run was an incredibly fierce and bloody battle, which resulted in a decisive victory for Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia. The four day battle resulted in well over 22,100 casualties, the highest number of casualties of the war up to that point. The battle was also of great military and political significance, but compared to other battles of the Civil War, 2nd Bull Run has been relatively overlooked. In Return to Bull Run, easily the best single volume study of the campaign and battle, author John Hennessy wrote that the battle has been neglected partly because it "has been greatly overshadowed by the event that preceded it--Robert E. Lee's repulse of George McClellan from the gates of Richmond--and that which followed it--the war's bloodiest day along Antietam Creek." (Hennessy, Return to Bull Run, xi).
* * * * * * * * * *
It was at 2nd Bull Run where the boys of the 48th Pennsylvania received their "baptism by fire." The regiment was organized the previous year, during the summer of 1861, but they had spent their first year in service on guard and garrison duty at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, and along the North Carolina coast. True, the 48th Pennsylvania had been exposed to enemy fire at the battle of New Bern in March 1862, but they were held in reserve and spent most of the battle literally carrying ammunition to the front. At New Bern, the 48th suffered no casualties. The same certainly could not be said of their actions at 2nd Bull Run. At 2nd Bull Run, the 48th Pennsylvania did well in what was their first major action of the war, but they paid a heavy price. Casualties were high with 42 men being killed or mortally wounded, another 56 wounded, and 57 listed as captured or missing in action. 2nd Bull Run would, indeed, prove to be one of the worst battles the 48th Pennsylvania participated in, with casualties coming close to equalling those sustained during the war's worst month of fighting, May-June 1864, during the so-called Overland Campaign, which included the battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, North Anna, and Cold Harbor.
Today I focus on the role of the 48th Pennsylvania at 2nd Bull Run. I will, of course, post the regimental casualties, but I will also be posting a number of first-hand accounts of the battle written by the soldiers themselves. I will including accounts authored by Joseph Gould, William Wells, Oliver C. Bosbyshell, Henry Pleasants, and James Wren.

The 48th/150th: Bloodletting at 2nd Bull Run: Part 2/4

Captain James Wren
Company B
Describes the Battle of 2nd Bull Run
August 29, 1862
James Wren, a machinist from Pottsville, kept a diary throughout his war time service. An immigrant from Wales, Wren was an active member of the Pottsville militia before the war, and would rise to the rank of major before resigning from the army in May 1863. His spelling was poor, but his diary is a great resource. His diary was edited by John Michael Priest, and published in 1991 by Berkeley Books.
* * * * * * * * * *
August 29th, 1862 On march to Centreville
At 3 o’clock this morning I got awake with the Coald & I got up. The battle was opened at 6 ½ o’clock A.M. Our artillery put on the right of the Line. Had a Compny roale Call this morning. Gen. Pope Just passed our line & he takes things quite Cool. He was smoking a Cigar when he passed. We marched to Centreville & when we arrived on the height, we flanked to the Left & moved on towards the Battle, which is going on. [We] supposed Jackson to be retreating & our troops in his rear. 11 o’clock A.M.—hear we passed the rebels that was taken prisoner. Thear was between 4 & 5 hundred of them. Thear was some of them fought against us in New Bern, North Carolina. Some of my men recognized them & they remarked that they would not fight anymore. Gen. Pope Just passed our Brigaid Line, the men being in the field resting, being very tired & hungry, but no time to attend to eating. At present, our Cavalry in the rear of Jackson’s lines. After our artillery had silenced the rebel guns, the infantry line taking position & now being in Position, the Battle then had to be decided by the infantry. At 25 minutes past 2 o’clock P.M., our Brigade entered the Battle line & before we advanced one hundred yards, we received a volley of Musketry into us, but we kept our line well dressed & we advanced & fired about 20 minutes Direct to the frunt but was not getting any further advanced, the rebels being in the old road Cut & we was ordered to Cease firing & then ordered to fix Baynet & we Charged the Cut & routed the enemy out of the Cut & we held the Cut & we were advancing beyond the Cut when a masked battrey opened and drove us Back into the Cut & while we war advancing beyond the Cut, our Left was unsupported & the enemy got around our left & got in our rear & we then had a fire to Contend against in frunt &  rear. I went up on the Bank to see the movements of the enemy & I saw them, quite plain. Crossing the road on our left & in our rear & I told Gen. Nagle & he Could not believe it & the adjetent Bertolette, was at our left & I went up on the Bank the second time &  while up, my men Called at the top of thear Voices to, “Come down or you will be Cut to pieces.” I felt the rim of my old hat quaver Like Leaf. The adjtent & myself went & we told Nagle the enemy was in our rear & we received a heavy volley from the rear. Nagle then flanked the Regt. by a right flank on Double Quick & retreated, Leaving orders for Captain Wren to protect the Left of the Cut until the Regiment got out. I saw through the move in a flash—better to Lose a Piece of the Loaf than to Lose a whole one & seeing that the regiment was out, I then flanked my Compny to the right & gave the Command, “Double quick, march!” & we passed through the rebels on Right & Left of us & within speaking distance of each other. On our retreating through theas lines, the rebels yelled out, “Stop, you Yankee sons of Bitches. You are our prisoners.” But we did not stop & after we had all got out, Gen. Phil Kearney was rallying his Brigaid & they all rallied to the 48th Coulers & they & the 48th went in again but was over powered & driven Back. During the rallying to the Colors, Gen. Phil Kearny, having but one arm & meeting some of his Brigaid said, with the Bridle rein between his teath & his sword in his hand, “Come on and go in again, you sons of Bitches & ; I’ll make Brigidear Genrels of every one of you.” Darkness Came on and the Battle ended for the day. During our retreating, I fell with my Breast striking a stump & I thought I was a prisoner sure when 2 of my men picked me up &; helped me out & it made me very sick & we went a little to the side &; they thought they would Cook a tin cup of Coffee for me & Just as we sat down, a solid shot buried itself right between us &  Said, “Boys, let us get out of this.” We went up to whear thear was a group of Staff officers & I was relating our narrow escape when a solid shot Buried itself right between Gen. Pope & Gen. Reno, who was setting down together & they looked at each other in the face & said, “I guess we had better get away from hear” & they moved to the one side another Seat. All Hostility Ceased for the night, both forces holding thear positions. Pope waiting anxiously for the arrival of Gen. Fitz John Porter, who was to have bin hear today, but at night had not arrived yet. I felt quite proud of my own Compny as they behaved well during the whole Battle & obeyed the Commands & stood true to thear work. So did out Regt. An old artilleryman who had gone the Mexican War said during the time that Brigade was engaged, he never heard such a steady fire keep up for such a long time, of infantry, in his Life. From the time we went in, until we Came out, it was Just 1 ¾ hours. I looked at my watch as we went in and look at it when we Came out. We fought in a thick woods & the powder smoke hung & we war all most as Black as N--------, perticuly around the mouth & eyes, when we Came out. During the Battle, 5 of my men was surrounded by rebels but was relieved by our troops again, and, at another time, 8 of them war taken prisoners & 3 of them was relieved by our troops. Paul Scheck, my old Cook, was in the hands of the Rebels, but was relieved by some of our men. The 3rd sergeant of our Compny, Basler, had 2 plugs of tobacco in his Haversack & a Bullet went right through both of them & Private Bickert had a Ball go through his Cartridge Box. George Marsden, a rather slow soldier to move, saw a rebel up in a tree & he took aim on him & he fell to the ground like a log. The men said that act made up for all George’s lost motion, as a number of them saw the act. During the time we war advanced, one of our men, Nicolas Shiterhour, shot the Coler Bearer of the enemy’s Flag, but got wounded afterwards. He was shot in the thigh. The ball went right through but did not Break and Bones. The Rebel Troops that our Brigade drove out of the road Cut was the Lusiania Tigers, which we fought at New Bern, North Carolina, March 14th. As we advanced to the Cut, they said, “Them is Burnside’s troops. We know them by thear line & thear Charge.” We, at night, lay under arms on the field whear we war Driven back to & having unslung our Knapsacks & had thrown them in a pile before we went into battle. This ground became the Center of the 2 Armies & thearfore, we were deprived of all our Knapsacks & Blankets. We thought it hard to have no tents but hear we had neather tents nor Blankets, the enemy Capturing All.

The 48th/150th: Bloodletting at 2nd Bull Run: Part 3/4

Captain Henry Pleasants, Company C
Describes the Battle of 2nd Bull Run

Henry Pleasants, who would garner much fame as the mastermind of the Petersburg Mine in June-July 1864, wrote the following account of the 48th's actions at 2nd Bull Run for the Miners' Journal, Pottsville's leading newspaper.
* * * * * * * * * *
Camp Near Alexandria {VA}
September 4, 1862
After leaving the left of Pope’s army, before the Rapidan, which position our Division (Reno’s) occupied, we marched to Kelly’s ford, across the Rappahannock. From this point we went to Rappahannock Station, thence along the northern side of the river to Sulphur Springs; thence to Warrenton and on to Warrenton Junction, where we rested for three-quarters of a day. From here we marched to Manassas Junction, and on to near Centreville, where we turned to the left and moved towards the Gap which leads to the Shenandoah Valley. This was on Friday morning. The action had already begun. We reached the battle-field at 1 P.M., and at 3 our Brigade, commanded by Colonel {James} Nagle, was ordered to attack the rebels in a thick woods. The 6th New Hampshire Regiment formed on the left, the 2nd Maryland on the right and the 48th Pennsylvania fifty paces in their rear. Hardly had the column entered the woods when the action began—brisk, fiery and bloody. Our regiment was marching on with the steadiness of regulars, when the battalions in front obliquing to the left and right, permitted us to advance quickly and occupy the intervening space, promptly opening a destructive fire on the rebels. We advanced firing for about a quarter of a mile, when Lieut. Col. {Joshua} Sigfried halted the regiment, and, after causing them to cease firing, ordered them to advance with the bayonet, which was done in gallant style—driving the enemy out of two ditches (one of them an old railroad cut,) and going on beyond them. We had, however, not gone far before we received a volley of musketry from behind. Thinking that we were fired on by some of our own troops, the regiment was ordered back to the nearest ditch, and our fire to the front resumed. From this time the fire poured on our and the New Hampshire regiment, was most terrific—from the front, left, and rear. The more our colors were raised and spread out to the view of our supposed friends behind, the hotter and bloodier were their discharges. At last the rebel regiments made their appearance on our rear, when Colonel Sigfried gave the order to retreat by the rightflank. The men stood this terrible fire without flinching, obeying the orders of their officers, and firing to the front where the enemy was supposed only to be. The regiments of the brigade were promptly reformed after leaving the woods, and soon after were relieved by the 2nd Brigade. The next day, Saturday, we were present at the battle, supporting batteries, and being continuously under artillery fire from 3 to 9 P.M. Our division was the last to leave the battlefield, which it did about ten o’clock that night. Next day, although without hardly any sleep, rest or food, we were drawn up in line of battle until night-time. On Monday, about 1 P.M., our division again marched from Centreville to Fairfax, protecting the train. When about three or four miles from where we started we met the rebels, in force, posted in the woods and corn-fields, and after fighting til dark, and being reinforced by General {Phil} Kearney, we gained a complete victory, driving them for nearly a mile. Our regiment was under heavy fire nearly the whole time, but supporting other troops in front, we could not return it. The loss of Saturday and Monday was very light, but that of Friday was terrible. The forest was converted into a slaughter-house. Some companies of the 6th New Hampshire were nearly exterminated. Some of ours lost about one-half their men. The regiment lost 152 men. The brigade, out of about 2,000, lost over 500.
{Henry Pleasants}

The 48th/150th: Bloodletting at 2nd Bull Run: Part 4/4

The Officers of Company G, 48th Pennsylvania
(Seated: Captain Oliver Bosbyshell; Standing Left: Lieutenant Curtis C. Pollock; Standing Right: Lieutenant Henry Clay Jackson, Captured at 2nd Bull Run)
Captain Oliver C. Bosbyshell Company G Describes the Battle of 2nd Bull Run Captain Oliver C. Bosbyshell wrote the following account of the 48th Pennsylvania's experience at 2nd Bull Run, August 29, 1862:
* * * * * * * * * *
Camp Forty-Eighth Regiment, P.V., Near Alexandria, Va., Sept. 3, 1862
A spare moment I devote to giving you a short account of the doings of the 48th in the late battles near Bull Run. I’ll not particularize about our long and tiresome march from Fredericksburg to Culpeper, &etc, but suffice it to say, that we arrived on the Bull Run battlefield last Friday morning. Preparations were being made on every side for a fight, and we expected of course, to have a hand in it. We were not disappointed. Three o’clock Friday afternoon, Nagle’s Brigade drew up in line of battle—the 2nd Maryland on the right, next the 6th New Hampshire, and the 48th covering the latter regiment. Off we moved, over a clear field, to quite a dense wood, out of which we were to drive the rebels. The wood was skirted by a fence, which we had scarcely crossed—in fact, our regiment was just getting over it—when bang! bang! whiz! whiz! and the battle commenced. There was no use talking, however. Our Brigade went right in; walked steadily on, driving the rebels quickly before them, but losing men fast. A ditch or embankment, in which the rebels had shielded themselves, and from out of which the Brigade which entered the woods before ours failed to drive them, our Brigade assailed so fiercely, that it was soon cleared. The 48th had bayonets fixed. Some of the prisoners wanted to know who they were with fixed bayonets, and what troops we were. When informed, they said they thought we must belong to “Burnside’s fighting devils.” The impetuosity of our men was great, and I believe we would have gone clear through the woods, without once halting, had not a strong flank movement been made by the rebels. They came around on our left, and opened a galling fire on our left flank and rear, which we did not return for some time, mistaking them for our own. When we discovered it, however, we answered lively, but they were too strong for us, with their raking cross-fire, and a retreat by the right flank was ordered. This we did in good order, returning fire for fire, and we got out in the clearing again, where the “rebs” dared not follow us. It is difficult to note all the incidents of personal bravery. Colonel Nagle was everywhere, cheering on the men, and barely escaped capture. He was ordered to halt several times by the rebels, pursued and fired at, but escaped. Lieutenant John D. Bertolette, his acting assistant Adjutant General, our late adjutant, was wounded in the thigh, while ably attending his duties. His aides, Lt. Blake and Hinkle, were actively engaged throughout the entire fight. Upon entering the woods, Colonel Nagle and his staff left their horses at the fence, the woods being entirely too thick to ride through, and, in the flanking by the rebels, the horses were captured. The Brigade lost, in killed, wounded, and missing, some 530 men. The 48th behaved exceedingly well, and did considerable damage to the “Louisiana Tigers.” Lt. Col. Sigfried was in the thickest on the fray, encouraging the men by actions as well as words. He was ably seconded by Major Kauffman and Acting Adjutant Gowen. But I cannot particularize; all behaved well; no one shirked, neither officers or men. Our loss is heavy, some 152 in killed, wounded and missing. Nearly all the missing have been ascertained to be prisoners, and will be paroled and released shortly. Reno’s Division—our Brigade included, of course—was also in the action of Saturday protecting batteries, &c. Towards evening we were ordered into the woods, where we went, but the darkness ended the fight before we exchanged shots with the enemy. Our Division was exposed to the shells and shots of the enemy nearly all day Saturday—(none in the 48th hurt, two of Company H, taken prisoners)—and was the last Division to leave the field. We retired from the ground at 9 o’clock, and by five next morning were in Centreville. On Sunday we were picketed about two miles out of Centreville, and we met the 96th on our way out. Monday afternoon our Division started for Fairfax, and was the first Division engaged at the fight at Chantilly, where the gallant Kearney and Stevens fell. The Brigade lost a number killed and wounded again, but the 48th escaped with two men slightly wounded, merely grazed. We were posted in a wood on the right, to prevent any flank movement the enemy might make. We remained on the battlefield until 3 o’clock Tuesday morning, when we made for Fairfax, reaching it by sunrise. By 6 o’clock last night we reached our present quarters, almost fagged our with excessive marching and fatigue. The 50th, 96th, and 129th, are all near at hand.