Thursday, May 5, 2016

Killed At Spotsylvania: Lt. Henry Clay Jackson: Teacher Turned Soldier Turned Martyr

Lieutenant Henry Clay Jackson
(Courtesy of Ronn Palm; Museum of Civil War Images) 
In 1861, twenty-four-year-old Henry Clay Jackson, from St. Clair, Pennsylvania, was looking forward to a career in the classroom. He was enrolled at the Millersville Normal School, studying to become a school teacher. But then the war came and Jackson--"From a sense of duty and not impulse"--decided to answer his country's call. He left his studies behind and entered the ranks of the Lafayette Rifles, a company recruited largely from St. Clair which soon became Company B, 14th Pennsylvania. Attached to General Robert Patterson's command, Jackson and the 14th saw no action during its three-month term of service. When his term of service with the 14th expired in late July, 1861, Jackson enlisted once more, this time to term a three-year term in the ranks of Company G, 48th Pennsylvania. 

It was not long before Jackson proved himself a natural leader and brave soldier. He was appointed as the company's Orderly Sergeant and in June 1862, was promoted to the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. On August 29, 1862, at Second Bull Run, Jackson was among the scores of soldiers of the 48th to fall into enemy hands, having been cut off in an unfinished railroad embankment and caught up in a devastating Confederate counterattack. As a prisoner of war, Jackson was sent south and soon found himself confined in Richmond's Libby Prison where he remained a short time before being exchanged.  Returning to the regiment, Jackson only narrowly survived the struggle at Fredericksburg when a shell burst directly in front of him, so close that it covered his face and neck with powder. Captain Oliver Bosbyshell of Company G, who was very near to Jackson, remembered that it appeared as though the lieutenant was suffering from a case of "black small pox." At Knoxville, in late November 1863, Jackson was more badly wounded when a shell fragment tore into his thigh while he was in command of the regimental picket line. 

The Officers Of Company G in 1863
Captain Bobsyshell (seated),
 Lt. Curtis Pollock (standing, left),

and Jackson (Hoptak Collection) 
Captured then confined in Libby, surviving a close call at Fredericksburg and a more serious wound at Knoxville, Jackson's luck ultimately ran out during the slaughter that was Spotsylvania. While lying prone in the line of battle, Jackson was struck with a ball through the neck, just above the collar bone, with the bullet coming to a stop in his chest. A number of his fellow soldiers carried the stricken lieutenant from the field, among them Sgt. William Auman--who would one day ride with Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War." Auman remembered that Jackson was lying next to him when he was hit. "When he was struck he fell against me," related Auman, "I asked him where he was hit; he whispered 'I don't know,' and then his head fell to one side and I saw that he was dying." Indeed, Jackson took his last breath while being carried to a hospital in the rear. Later buried near where he fell at Spotsylvania, the remains of Lieutenant Henry Clay Jackson were reportedly reinterred after the war and laid to rest at the National Cemetery in Fredericksburg, Virginia, though there is no known grave marker for him there.  

The loss of Jackson was deeply felt in the regiment. In his regimental history, Joseph Gould wrote that Jackson was "a noble fellow," who was "idolized by his men." Bosbyshell related that Jackson was "an able and fearless officer," while after the war, Francis Wallace bestowed further praise upon on Jackson in his work, Memorial to the Patriotism of Schuylkill County:

"Thus fell Lieutenant Jackson, faithful to every duty, and though sensible to danger and peril, yet braving them with heroic disregard of self. He had determined if his life was spared to remain in the army till the last organized force of rebellion was overthrown. Gifted with a vigorous physical organization, considerable energy, a clear and active mind, ready utterance, strict integrity, and withal modest and affectionate, his friends had high hopes of his success in a civil profession, but he was reserved by Providence to be one of the numerous martyrs in behalf of the Union, and the honor and free institutions of our country."


[Notes: Francis Wallace. Memorial to the Patriotism of Schuylkill County (Pottsville, Pennsylvania: Benjamin Bannan Publisher, 1865): pg. 529; Joseph Gould. The Story of the Forty Eighth (Philadelphia: Alfred M. Slocum, Publisher, 1908), pg. 180; Oliver Bosbyshell. The 48th in the War (Philadelphia: Avil Printing Company, 1895), pgs. 97, 150.  

Thursday, April 7, 2016

Discovering Lt. Cullen. . .

Lieutenant William Cullen
Company E, 48th Pennsylvania
[Courtesy of  Catherine Siegel and Family] 

In all of my years studying the 48th Pennsylvania Infantry, there are few moments more thrilling for me than when I see an image or a photograph of one of the regiment's soldiers for the very first time. After all the time I have spent poring over the rosters, studying the returns and rolls, examining the casualty lists, reading the letters and accounts, I cannot help but naturally wonder what these soldiers looked like and I am always thrilled, even elated, when a photograph surfaces or is discovered that allows me to, at last, put a face to the name. Unfortunately, it really does not happen that often, or at least less often than one might suppose. During the four years of the American Civil War, approximately 1,800 soldiers served in the ranks of the 48th, some for a few months, others for all four years. Yet of this number, I have only ever seen images of about 200, or just about 11% of the entire regiment. Of course, I do keep an eye out, regularly searching through the inventories of Civil War relics/antique dealers, historical auction sites, and checking frequently on ebay and other places where, over the years, some 48th CDVs have been put up for sale. And whenever I receive an email from a descendant of a 48th soldier, I always ask in return if they have or know of a photograph of their ancestor who served in the ranks. . .

Almost all of the time the answer, unfortunately, is no. 

That was the answer I got when, in late November 2015, I received an email from a descendant of Lieutenant William Cullen, of Company E, 48th PA. Having worked at Antietam for so many years and knowing well the actions of the regiment there, I have longed searched, or I should say, waited, to see an image of Cullen. Cullen was killed there, late on the afternoon of that bloody Wednesday in mid-September 1862 when a ramrod was propelled through his chest. The grisly and ghastly nature of his death wound was recorded specifically in the regimental history authored by Oliver Bosbyshell in 1896. Writing of the regiment's stand atop a ridge line east of Otto's farm lane and of the artillery bombardment they sustained while there, Bosbyshell wrote of one particularly deadly and destructive shot: "With a bang and a splutter along came that destructive old shell, which filled [Jacob] Douty's eyes with dirt, and bruised his shoulder, tore off Sergeant [John] Seward's leg and left Sergeant [William] Trainer minus one arm, as it drove the ramrod he was just replacing into poor Cullen's breast. Cullen jumped to his feet, tore open his shirt to show his captain the wound, and then dropped dead at Winlack's feet."  Yes, I knew Cullen's story fairly well. How, before the war, he was a coal miner from Silver Creek; married, with a number of small children, and rather tall; he stood nearly 6'2" in height. In April 1861, Cullen left home and family behind in answer to his country's call--he was a First Generation American. His parents, Thomas and Bridget Mary Burke Cullen, were natives of County Wexford in Ireland who had made the long journey across the Atlantic. William Cullen, their first of eventually twelve children, was born in Pennsylvania in 1829, which made him thirty-two-years of age when civil war erupted across the family's adopted land. Cullen answered his country's call, serving under Captain William Winlack as a sergeant in the Wynkoop Artillery, a militia company which became Company E, 16th Pennsylvania Infantry. The 16th was a three-month organization and upon the expiration of this term of service, Cullen assisted Winlack in recruiting a new company from around the Silver Creek area, a company that, in September 1861, became Company E, 48th Pennsylvania Infantry, a "three-years or the course of the war" regiment. Cullen was mustered into service as the company's 1st Lieutenant.  One month later, from Fortress Monroe, Virginia, Cullen wrote to his mother, explaining why he felt it right and proper to offer his services: 

Fort Monroe Headquarters
Department of V. A.
Camp Hamilton
October 23rd, 1861

Dear Mother
after a relapse of some time its with pleasing anticipation I address those lives you Brothers & Sisters hoping to find you all in good health and blessing. I enjoy myself at present dear Mother. After my return from the 3 months servise I remained at home for a few weeks but the way the Country was situated business of all descriptions. Suspended & seeing that my service to my adopted country was stile kneeded
[still needed] I procured a commission of first Leutenancy under same Captain that I served under in the 3 months & again immerged into it for during the war dear mother our position is not a dangerous one as we are at present camped under the protection of the fort that is described on the map. It is the largest fort belonging (to) the government it mounts 377 guns 2, 4000 men & cost 2 million 4 hundred thousand dollars to build it dear mother, brother & sisters. I hope that my conduct through this campain may be unstained that I may gain all the hounour & esteem & hounour due to my rank & station from them that is under my command & pray that I may survive to see the Glorious Stars & Stripes Float again from the shores of the Pacific to the St. Laurance then man can Enjoy again the blessings & privileges [?] that glorious Washington established if once overturned by rebble force could never be replaced. When that happy hour shale arive that the Trumpet of peace shale echo through the land while I returned to the fond affections of a loving Wife & Children & the Tender Embrace of an aged Mother, Brother & Sisters. Dear Mother their is none of the enemy to be seen at this point they are reported to be concentrating within 25 miles of here at a place called Yorktown where Washington took Lord Cornwallice & 15 hundred men prisoners at the time of the Revolutionary war. The(y) burned down a Town called Hampton 1 mile from here about 3 months ago and have not been seen here since. I cannot say how long we will be stationed here. We are the first Pennsylvania Troops ever landed at this point. We are the 48 Regt. of P.A. voluntiers commanded by Col. James Nayle [Nagle] of Potsville. He is of appinion that we will remain here some time. I wish you to answer this letter as soon as you possible can & let me know all particulars. I wont neglect writing to you & trust I shale receive the same from you in return. Send my best respects to Frances Coyle & Wife & send my love to James, Thomas, John & Davy, Mary, Elen, Catherine & James & Jane & serve [?] 

A Large portion for your selfe from
Your Affectionate Son
Wm. Cullin

Direct to Leiut. Wm. Cullin Co. E. 48th Regt. P.A. Fort Monroe, V.A.
To Mrs. Bridget Cullin Dushore, P.A.
Sullivan Co. P.A. United States


[Letter Credit to: Monique S. Derby and http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pasulliv/sullivancountyfolk/CullenCivilWarLetters/Cullen.htm]


Less than a year after writing this, Cullen gave his life upon the fields of Antietam to help ensure that the Stars & Stripes floated once again over a united land. He was a popular officer and his death was lamented within the ranks of his company and of his regiment. Indeed, a day after the fight, on September 18, a member of Company E--most likely Private David Hamilton--authored a poem, entitled:
"Ode to William Cullen"
Attention ye brave to this mournful story, 
That I am going to pen of a soldier so brave:
Who started to reap a rich harvest of glory,
But is now lying dead in his cold narrow grave.

His name was Bill Cullen as fearless of danger
As the shining steel sword he held in his hand:
He left his fond wife to the cold hearted strangers,
While he went to fight for his dear native land.

A lieutenant he was under brave Captain Winlock
In the 48th Regiment of Schuykill's brave sons;
He never was daunted by cannon or firelocks,
But like a true soldier stood firm by his guns.

He fought at Bull Run on the first of September,
Where Burnside so valiantly beat back the foe;
The day that the rebels will ever remember,
And the Northern men look to with wonder and woe.

It was there that he seemed like an angel
Of mercy sent down from a high;
As the wounded he carried away from the danger
And cared for the poor sufferers left there to die.

But alas I must tell you in heart rendering numbers,
His sad fate at the Battle of Antietam Creek;
'Twas there he fell in deaths slumbers.
Cut down in his prime not a word could he speak.

With his sword waving high in the battle, 
While cheering his men to the action once more;
A cursed rebel shell in death dealing rattle,
Striking brave Cullen laid him in his gore.

As next morning his comrades gathered around him,
Laid him down gently in his hallow bed;
Every one dropped a true soldiers tear o'er him,
Saying, Peace to the ashes of the gallant dead. 

William Cullen's remains were later taken back to Schuylkill County where they continue to rest in St. Stephen's Cemetery in Port Carbon. . . 


The Grave of William Cullen 



Ruth, the great-great-grand niece of Cullen who had contacted back in November 2015, wrote to ask if I would be willing to lead her and a number of her relatives on a tour of the battlefield of Antietam, with a particular focus on the actions of the 48th there. Of course, I responded, It would be--and was, indeed--a great honor. 
We met up at the Visitor Center at Antietam on December 27. I remember that at the outset of the tour, one of the kind gentlemen in the group named Frank told me that they had something special for me once we got to the fields where the 48th fought. And while we covered the whole battleground--from the North Woods and Cornfield to the West Woods and the Sunken Road--I was especially looking forward to leading the descendants of Lt. Cullen on a tour of where the regiment fought and where he lost his life. We parked at the Burnside Bridge and I described the actions of the 48th, who were positioned on the opposite bluff, firing at those pesky and determined Georgians holding the bridge. "And when at last the bridge was carried, the 48th," I explained, "proceeded in this direction . . ." We walked from the parking lot, along a portion of the Final Attack Trail, to a rise of ground immediately east of the Otto Farm Lane. From there, we could see Burnside's objective--the high ground, 3/4 of a mile ahead. I described the attack of Willcox's and Rodman's divisions and how, when A.P. Hill's Confederates arrived and smashed into Burnside's left flank, causing it to cave, the 48th was called forward to this point of ground to help stem the gray-and-butternut tide. It was at this spot, I explained, where the regiment suffered its highest loss. And it was there, somewhere very nearby, where that particularly "destructive old shell" came along with a bang and a splutter, tearing off legs and arms and driving Sgt. Trainer's ramrod straight through Cullen's chest. It was somewhere near here, I said, where the lieutenant--their ancestor--sprang to his feet, tore open his shirt, and fell dead at Captain Winlack's feet. After I finished, the group gathered closer to me and Frank placed an arm around me, reached into his shirt pocket and pulled out. . .

. . .an image of Lieutenant William Cullen!

I could hardly believe what I was seeing and still, today, I have a hard time attributing how this all came about to pure coincidence. As it turned out, just one week before Ruth and her family journeyed to Antietam for the tour, they found an image of Cullen on an online genealogy site, an image posted there by a relative they did not know they had. It was truly quite remarkable that just a week before they walked the ground where Cullen fell they, for the first time, saw his face. And, for me, it was an absolutely incredible moment--one I will not soon forget, when I was presented with a copy of Cullen's image by his descendants very near the spot where he gave his life while serving in the ranks of the 48th. 

Since that time, I have learned much more about Cullen from his descendants and have been in contact with that branch of the family who has the photograph, hanging on the wall of their home. For their kindness and generosity, I would like to thank Ruth, Jean, and Frank Sando, Ms. Catherine Siegel, and their families for allowing me to share this story and that amazing moment when I first discovered Lieutenant William Cullen. . . 


Wednesday, July 22, 2015

The 48th/150th: The End

The Remnants of the First State Flag Presented to the 48th Pennsylvania
in September 1861
(pacivilwarflags.org)

 
150 years ago today. . .on July 22, 1865, the 48th Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry would cease to any longer exist. The regiment was disbanded, its soldiers and officers mustered out of service, its veterans returning to their homes. Having been first organized in the late summer of 1861, the 48th Pennsylvania Infantry served throughout nearly all four years of the conflict, campaigning in various theaters of the war, and seeing action in dozens of engagements and major battles. By foot, by rail, and on the water, the regiment traversed thousands of miles. . .through Virginia and North Carolina, in Maryland, and across Pennsylvania, through Ohio and across Kentucky and deep into eastern Tennessee, before returning once more to Virginia for the final twelve months of the fratricidal slaughter. Throughout the four years of the regiment's existence, more than 1,800 soldiers had served in the ranks of the 48th for varying lengths of time. . .some for a few weeks, others for all four years. Most had entered voluntarily, though there were also present in all ten of its companies a number of drafted men. At least 329 soldiers of the 48th had given their lives in the contest while hundreds of others sustained non-fatal wounds or were wracked with illness and disease. The regiment's dead were buried in no fewer than seven different states, a testament to the miles traveled and the wide extent of their service. Of course, the 48th had inscribed its name forever in the war's history by its remarkably successful tunneling operation in the summer of 1864 south and east of Petersburg, when the regiment, with little in the way of help and assistance, dug a tunnel and exploded a mine under a portion of the Confederate defensive position known as Elliot's Salient. This action had made the 48th Pennsylvania famous and still today there remains few other single regimental actions of the war that garners as much attention as the 48th's tunneling of the Petersburg Mine. 150 years ago many of the regiment's veterans no doubt still harbored disbelief and a little resentment that the higher ups had failed so miserably to capitalize on their great success. Still, though, that was in the past; a part of history. The regiment itself would soon become part of history when, 150 years ago this day, the men returned home to a hero's ovation.
 
Since April 28, 1865, the soldiers of the 48th Pennsylvania had been encamped at Fort Lyon in Alexandria, Virginia. The war was all but officially over and the weary veterans looked forward to returning back to their families in Schuylkill County. Some had not seen home or their loved ones for well over a year. Camp life at Alexandria was dull, the monotony broken only on May 23 when the regiment paraded down the streets of Washington, D.C., in that majestic Grand Review. Following the memorable event, the 48th returned to Fort Lyon and awaited their discharge. That moment finally arrived on July 17, 1865. It was on that day--a Monday--that the soldiers who remained in the ranks of the 48th were officially mustered out of service. Just a short time later the men started for home. They traveled, most likely by rail, back to Harrisburg, the place where its ten companies were first organized in the late summer of 1861, for what must have seemed like an eternity earlier for those grizzled and tried veteran warriors who were there when the 48th was born and for when it was forever disbanded. At Harrisburg the soldiers would have to wait until all the paperwork was completed, for all of the regimental reports and muster sheets to be filled out, for the regimental officers to prepare their final reports. . .and. . .for the paymaster to arrive with their final draw of army pay. Finally, on Saturday, July 22, the soldiers boarded train cars and began the final journey home. After all the marching and all the campaigning. . .all the trips via steamer and after all the marching. . .this would be the final leg of the regiment's wartime record. Oliver Bobsyshell, formerly a lieutenant then the captain of Company G before becoming the regiment's major, beautifully described that last fifty-five-mile-long journey home in his regimental history, published more than three decades later: "Finally, on the twenty-second, every detail having been completed, the regiment started from Harrisburg for home. Oh how sweet the word to the brave fellows who had been spared through so many and great dangers. Home, blessed name, so soon to be realized! How the hearts of the men on that train throbbed as each mile carried them nearer and nearer to that sacred place! Many could have hugged the trainman when 'Reading' was shouted into the cars! And then the welcome towns of Hamburg, Port Clinton, Auburn, and Schuylkill Haven flew by--then every man on his feet ready to spring to the ground when Pottsville was reached, where great crowds roared, cheered and cried such a hearty welcome, all knew it was HOME!"
 
And, indeed, did the people of Pottsville turn out to welcome home these veteran soldiers! They were there by the many hundreds, nay, many thousands. The city and its people had been preparing for the return home of the 48th for the past week, having held special meetings and appointing delegates to officially welcome the boys back home. Banners of red, white, and blue decorated the facades of homes and businesses all throughout the city; flags were raised and a festive atmosphere permeated the streets of Schuylkill County's largest town and seat of government. Then, at last, with the crowd now thronged at the train station and gathered along the city streets, the train carrying the veteran soldiers of the 48th arrived, sometime around 3:00 p.m. They were met there by the welcoming home committee and then escorted up Centre Street amid the thunderous applause, the singing of songs, and even the firing of cannons. The first stop for these men, once they arrived in Pottsville, was the Union Hotel, where speeches were made. The veterans appreciated the kind and thoughtful words, but were no doubt straining their necks, looking about for the faces of their loved ones--their mothers, fathers, wives, children--gathered there, somewhere in the vast crowd. Finally, after a few spontaneous words, and after a few toasts to Nagle, to Sigfried, and to Pleasants, the men dispersed. Bosbyshell captured the scene: "The meetings of the wives and children, with their husbands and fathers, were in many instances touching, in all joyful. When the men reached the corner of Centre and Market, a wife or sweetheart of one of the soldiers in the ranks saw him. His eye caught hers at the same moment. Impulsively they flew with open arms toward each other, and the next moment were locked in a fond embrace. Neither, from emotion, could speak; but tears of joy trickled down their cheeks. It was a scene the sacredness of which the publicity could not destroy."
 
And so the soldiers of the 48th were back at home after so grueling and so heartbreaking an absence. The regiment itself no longer existed; it was the end of the 48th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. And no matter how thankful they were and how happy these weary soldiers now civilians once more were to be home, it must have been a very bittersweet moment. Not there to welcome them home were the widows of those who had fallen, or the mothers and fathers who had already buried a son, or whose child now lay buried hundreds of miles away from home, in Virginia, in North Carolina, in east Tennessee, or even outside of Andersonville, Georgia. Many were the women in black dress; many were the children who would never again see their father. Indeed, many was the child who would never  meet his father. So many of the 48th's fallen had long been in the ground in nearby cemeteries, some in Pottsville, where their silent graves lay less than a mile from the triumphant scene. Many of these graves were no doubt visited that day. And all throughout the rest of Schuylkill County were other graves, the final resting places of those who succumbed to disease or who fell at such places as Antietam, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and on and on and on. What were the feelings, the thoughts, the emotions of the families of these soldiers when they learned the war was over and that the surviving veterans of the 48th were once more back home? And what were the thoughts and feelings of those surviving veteran soldiers, now once more civilians, upon returning home and seeing the graves of departed comrades and friends, and upon seeing the widows and the mothers and the children whose husband, son, father gave his life while serving in the war?
 
And what now? Now that the war was over and the men were back at home, at last, in Schuylkill County. . .How long was it before they returned to work, on the farms, in the office, or in the coal mines? How long was it before the illness and scars and wounds they sustained in the war came back to haunt them? For how many would their lives be cut short because these wartime injuries and wounds? How long was it before these civilian volunteer soldiers turned civilian once more tried to bury and suppress the scenes of carnage, the memories of the hell of war? The whole of the rest of their lives now lay before them, their soldier days were done. And the 48th Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Infantry was now but a reminiscence, a memory. . .part of history.
 
Record Banner of the 48th Pennsylvania Infantry
(pacivilwarflags.org)
 

Thursday, July 2, 2015

The 48th/150th: Off To Mexico?

150 years ago. . .the soldiers of the 48th Pennsylvania remained encamped at Alexandria, Virginia. Lee, Johnston, and a number of other Confederate leaders had long since surrendered their forces; Richmond had long since fallen; and Lincoln long since dead. Even the Grand Review of May 23, in which the 48th had proudly marched, seemed like a distant memory. The war was all but officially over. And so the officers and soldiers of the 48th bided their time as best they could, waiting to be discharged, the regiment mustered out, and simply longing to return home. 
 
Yet 150 years ago, there were a good number of soldiers in the regiment who were convinced that they would be retained in the service and sent off to a new, developing theater of operations: Mexico!
 
In 1862, with the United States deeply mired in its own civil war, French forces arrived in Mexico and drove Benito Juarez from power. Soon enough Maximilian I of Austria arrived and proclaimed himself Emperor. In Washington, Lincoln and the administration had spoken out loudly against this action, but with their own war to wage and to win, little was done. However, now that the Civil War was drawing to an end, some50,000 U.S. soldiers, headed by General Philip Sheridan, were assembled in Texas, in the hopes that such a strong show of strength would convince the French to leave. Ultimately the French would leave but not until the following year.
 
 
Mexico and Texas


 
With this developing situation and with the 48th remaining essentially inactive in their camps at Alexandria, it was not long before a rumor began to spread that they had been designated to be sent south and attached to Sheridan's force in Texas. Not only that, but the rumor also was that several officers of the 48th had actually petitioned the War Department to select the 48th to take part of this pending action. Soon, this rumor grew its proverbial legs and raced all throughout the camp. The enlisted men, waiting to go home, were outraged and very adamantly opposed to any such notion. So convinced were the men of the validity of this rumor that they, too, drew up a petition, one that was very quickly signed by the sergeants of each of the companies, stating that they represented the wishes of all the men. They did not want to go to Mexico. Period. They just wanted to go home. With the senior officers of the regiment entirely unaware, this petition was sent off to Harrisburg, to the attention of Governor Curtin. Not quite sure what he was supposed to do with this document, Curtin forwarded it to Headquarters, Army of the Potomac. From there, it traveled down the chain of command: to 9th Corps Headquarters, to Second Division, 9th Corps Headquarters, to brigade headquarters. . .and finally, to the attention of Colonel Isaac Brannan, the commanding officer of the 48th. Brannan had assumed command of the regiment in early April, following the death of Colonel George Gowen at Petersburg. And now, surprised, embarrassed, and angry, Brannan attempted to find out who among his soldiers was to blame for first spreading this rumor and for writing up this petition. After interviewing several of the men, it was somehow determined that it was Corporal John Cruikshank, of Company H, who was the principal culprit. For his part, Cruikshank--nicknamed "Crooky,"a 25-year-old machinist from Pottsville--neither admitted nor denied that he was. So Brannan had him arrested and, in an effort to get the truth out of him, ordered Cruikshank to be strung up by the thumbs. . .a most painful punishment. Brannan continued to press but Cruikshank remained obdurate; he would not say anything. Frustrated and embarrassed by the whole situation, Brannan ordered him released.
 
Cruikshank returned to his quarters, the culprit never positively identified, and the 48th never ordered off to Mexico. . .
 
 
Illustration of Being Tied Up By Thumbs



 
 


The Grave of Corporal John Cruikshank
Shamokin Cemetery
Whether or not he was the main culprit in the spreading of the rumor that the 48th's officers wanted the regiment to go off to Mexico, Cruikshank would never admit. The old soldier died in Shamokin in 1915 at age 75.

Saturday, May 30, 2015

The 48th/150th: The Dead of the 48th Pennsylvania

As initially envisioned and intended, this date--May 30--was, in 1868, originally designated as Decoration Day, a day of solemn remembrance during which Americans were to pause and pay tribute to those who died fighting in defense of the United States during the Civil War. And I can think of no more fitting and proper a date than today to post and to pay tribute to those soldiers of the 48th Pennsylvania who gave their last full measure of devotion during the four-year-long conflict.
From the late summer of 1861 until the date of the regiment's disbandment on July 17, 1865, at least 329 soldiers of the 48th Pennsylvania died, whether in camp, in the hospital, in the prison pen, or on the battlefield. The number is most likely higher still, since the records for a good number of the soldiers are simply not clear nor conclusive; several are simply listed as "Not On Muster Out Roll." And thus far, I have not been able to determine all of these soldiers' fates. Also, it must be kept in mind that this figure does not include those who died after the war and still early in their life from the wounds, the disease, and the hardships of soldiering. General James Nagle, for example, the man who first organized the regiment in the summer of 1866, passed away at age 44 in August 1866 from heart disease, which his physicians determined was caused by the war. There were many others; those who died at age 25 or 30 or 35 throughout the late 1860s and 1870s. But during the conflict itself, at least 329 soldiers of the 48th Pennsylvania lost their lives. This number is much higher than the one provided in the regimental history penned by Joseph Gould, which records only 236 regimental fatalities, and higher than what was initially tallied in the 1865 book Memorial to the Patriotism of Schuylkill County, which records 234 dead from the 48th. A close look at all the sources, however, reveals that at least 328 perished--and likely more. The dead of the 48th--those who died during the four-year-war--lie buried in six states: Pennsylvania, of course, but also North Carolina, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, and Georgia, as well as in the District of Columbia, which is a testament to all the hard campaigning the regiment endured from 1861-1865. In terms of the regiment's costliest battles, 2nd Bull Run tops the list with 40 soldiers either killed or mortally wounded. Spotsylvania comes in second. The Battles of Cold Harbor, Petersburg (June 17-18, 1864), Petersburg (April 2, 1865), Antietam, and Fredericksburg were also particularly deadly for the regiment. 1864 was the deadliest year, with 157 fatalities--nearly half of all the regiment's deaths during the war--occurring in that awful year.
A chronological listing of those who died from the ranks of the 48th Pennsylvania, is provided below, along with several of the photographs of those who gave their last full measure. . .   
48th Pennsylvania Civil War Deaths


1861 (8)

-William Millet, Co. H: Died: 9/7/1861; Accidentally Killed on the Railroad in Harrisburg

-Daniel Reighard, Co. C: 11/11/1861; Died at Camp Hamilton, VA

-William Miller, Co. A: Died: 11/21/1861 at Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina.

-Sergeant William T. Garrett, Co. H: Died 11/23/1861 at Fortress Monroe

-Thomas Davidson, Co. B: Died 11/28/1861 at Hatteras, North Carolina

-Lieutenant Alexander Fox, Co. D: Died: 12/1/1861 on steamer Spaulding near Fortress Monroe, VA

-William Brerton, Co. F: Died at Ft. Clark, Hatteras Inlet, NC, 12/11/1861

-Philip L. Diehl, Co. G: Died 12/23/1861, Hatteras, N.C.         


1862 (98)

-Thomas McAvoy, Co. C: 1/14/1862; Died at Camp Winfield, NC

-John Spreese, Co. A: Died: 1/21/1862 at New Bern, North Carolina

-Surgeon David Minis: Died at Roanoke, North Carolina, N.C., 2/14/1862, of over-exerting himself attending to the wounded

-George F. Mains, Co. K: Died 3/30/1862 at Hatteras, NC

-Andrew Spear, Co. D: Died 4/15/1862 at Newbern, NC

-Bernard West, Co. A: Died: 5/12/1862 in New Bern, North Carolina.

-Daniel Flagerty, Co. C: Died 5/28/1862 in Newbern, North Carolina

-Andrew Klock, Co. D: Died of typhoid fever 6/30/1862 at Newbern, NC

-Charles Treisbach, Co. F: Died 7/1/1862

-Addison Seaman, Co. D: Died of Disease,  7/16/1862

-Mattis Sheafer, Co. D: Died 8/4/1862; Committed Suicide on board steamer Cossack

-Abraham Ferrer, Co. B: Died August 7, 1862

-Israel Eiler, Co. B: Died August 7, 1862, in New York

-Alexander Boone, Co. I: Died in Fredericksburg, 8/11/1862

-Franklin Wetzel, Co. A: Died: 8/12/1862; Drowned in the Potomac River as the result of the sinking of the steamer West Point.

-1st Lt. George H. Gressang, Co. I: Drowned 8/12/1862 by the sinking of the steamer West Point

-Thomas G. Williams, Co. B: Drowned 8/13/1862 on the Potomac River

-John H. Leiser, Co. A: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862.

-Louis M. Reece, Co. B: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-John Weiser, Co. C: 8/29/1862; Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run

-Barney Gettler, Co. C: 8/29/1862; Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run

-Charles Miller, Co. D: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Corporal Leonard Shrishorn, Co. D: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Corporal Israel Vancannon, Co. D: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Mattis Bailey, Co. D: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Cpl. William Mackey/McKay, Co. E: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Michael Brennan, Co. E: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Hugh McFeely, Co. E: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Samuel Moyer, Co. E: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-John Becker/Baker, Co. E: Missing and Presumed Dead at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-John Haggerty, Co. F: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Michael Kilrain, Co. F: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Peter Quinn, Co. F: Supposed to have been Killed at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Thomas Kelley, Co. H: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-William Nagle, Co. H: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862.

-Samuel Petit, Co. H: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Charles F. Leiser, Co. I: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Hesgian Link, Co. I: Missing in Action at 2nd Bull Run; Supposed to have died

-Captain Henry A.M. Filber, Co. K: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Sergeant Roland D. Filbert, Co. K: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-David Boyer, Co. K: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-David D. Dress, Co. K: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-W. Fenstermacher, Co. K: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-William Labenberger, Co. K: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-Daniel Shanley/Stanley, Co. K: Killed in Action at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862

-James Muldowney, Co. G: Mortally Wounded 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862; Died of Wounds       

-William Hopkins, Co. F: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died: 8/31/1862 of wounds

-George Ramer, Co. A: Died in Georgetown, 9/6/1862

-Charles Knerr, Co. H: Died 9/7/1862

-Corporal George Ramer, Co. D: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died of Wounds, 9/6/1862

-Sergeant William Bambrick, Co. D: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died of Wounds, 9/12/1862

-William Smith, Co. G: Mortally Wounded 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862; Died of Wounds, 9/14/1862        

-Henry Jenkins, Co. F: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862; died in Georgetown, DC, 9/15/1862

-Cpl. John Brobst, Co. A: Mortally Wounded at Antietam, 9/17/1862.

- John Robinson, Co. B: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/17/1862

-Alexander Prince, Co. B: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/18/1862

-Alva F. Jeffries, Co. D: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/17/1862

-1st Lieutenant William Cullen, Co. E: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/17/1862

-John Broadbent, Co. E: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/17/1862

-Charles Timmons, Co. G: Killed in Action, Antietam 9/17/1862          

-Cpl. Lewis V. Focht, Co. I: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/17/1862

-Corporal Daniel Moser, Co. K: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/17/1862

-George Dentzer, Co. L: Killed in Action at Antietam, 9/17/1862

-David Stichter, Co. D: Died in Hospital at Sharpsburg, MD, 9/21/1862

-James Farrell, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died: 9/25/1862

-Benjamin Hoffman, Co. I: Wounded at South Mountain, 9/14/1862; Died of Wounds 9/25/1862;

-John Martin/Morton, Co. E: Died 9/25/1862

-John Springer, Co. A: Died: 10/9/1862 from Wounds Received in Action.

-John Sullivan, Co. D: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died of Wounds, 10/8/1862

-Cpl. Albert T. Frazier, Co. C: Died 10/14/1862 of Consumption in Alexandria, VA

-Sgt. Benjamin G. Otto, Co. A: Wounded in Action; Died of Wounds: 10/15/1862

-James Winters, Co. K: Died 10/15/1862 at Fortress Monroe, VA

-Peter Boyer, Co. K: Died in 10/22/1862 in Cressona, PA

-John J. Morrison, Co. F: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died 10/23/1862

-Corporal Patrick Handley, Co. K: Died 10/25/1862 in Washington, D.C.

-Joseph Low, Co. C: Died 10/29/1862 in Alexandria of Wounds Received in Action

-Thomas Major, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died: 10/31/1862

-Edward Daniels, Co. C: Died 11/1/1862 of Chronic Diarrhea in Alexandria

-John Farne, Co. G: Mortally Wounded 2nd Bull Run, 8/29/1862; Died of Wounds 11/8/1862              

-Edward McCabe, Co. G: Died of Disease, Washington, D.C., 11/12/1862

-Peter Burke, Co. K: Died of Typhoid Fever, 11/14/1862

-Corporal Charles C. Hinkle, Co. H: Died 11/23/1862, at Hatteras, North Carolina

-Corporal Raymond A. Jenkins, Co. H: Died 12/8/1862 in Ascension Hospital, Washington

-J.W. Heebner/Heevener, Co. D: Died of chronic diarrhea, 12/9/1862

-Elijah Knight, Co. E: Died in Annapolis, 12/12/1862

-John Ruff, Co. A: Died in Washington: 12/13/1862

-James Williams, Co. A: Killed in Action at Fredericksburg: 12/13/1862

-Cpl. Joseph B. Carter, Co. A: Mortally Wounded at Fredericksburg, 12/13/1862.

-Michael Divine, Co. B: Killed in Action at Fredericksburg, VA, 12/13/1862

-John Williams, Co. B: Killed in Action at Fredericksburg, VA, 12/13/1862

-William Hill, Co. B: Killed in Action at Fredericksburg, VA, 12/13/1862

-Cpl. Reuben Robinson, Co. B: Killed in Action at Fredericksburg, VA, 12/13/1862

-Henry Williamson, Co. D: Killed in Action at Fredericksburg, 12/13/1862

-Thomas Kinney, Co. D: Killed in Action at Fredericksburg, 12/13/1862

-Thomas Connell, Co. B: Died of Disease, 12/18/1862

-Musician Abraham Wadsworth, Co. B: Died: 12/18/1862 in Port Carbon, PA

-Henry Burnish, Co. G: Died in Pottsville, 12/20/1862, of chronic diarrhea        

-Cpl. Edward F. Schappell, Co. I: Wounded at Fredericksburg, 12/13/1862; Died in hospital of wounds, Date -Unknown


1863 (17)

-Corporal John H. Derr, Co. D : Mortally Wounded at Fredericksburg; Died of Wounds in Washington, 1/2/1863

-George Briggle, Co. A: Died in Philadelphia: 1/4/1863.

-Nicholas Shitehour, Co. B: Died 1/13/1863 in Washington, D.C. of chronic diarrhea

-James Bergan, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died: 1/11/1863

-Samuel Brooks, Co. B: Died 1/13/1863 near Falmouth, Virginia

-Levi Fisher, Co. I: In Hospital at Harpers Ferry, 8/16/1862; Died, 1/21/1863

-George Shertle, Co. D: Died of Disease 2/8/1863 in Washington, D.C.

-Sgt. Arthur P. Hatch, Co. C: 2/13/1863; Died in Newport News of heart disease

-Jacob H. Rumble, Co. I: Died: 4/14/1863

-Jacob Smith, Co. C: 5/3/1863; Died of diarrhea in Baltimore, MD

-Andrew Scott, Co. C: 6/27/1863; Killed in Lexington, KY

-Valentine Raush, Co. G: Drowned 6/11 or 12/1863   

-Corporal Joseph Reed, Co. H: Killed 11/16/1863 at Campbell’s Station, TN.

-Joseph Weise, Co. H: Died in Knoxville, TN, 11/21/1863

-John Sponslor/Sponsler, Co. H: Killed 11/29/1863 at Knoxville, TN

-Jonas Haldeman, Co. I: Killed in Action, Knoxville, TN, 11/29/1863

-Cpl. Charles Weaver, Co. I: Died 12/5/1863 in Knoxville, TN, of wounds received 12/3/1863

-Josiah Kramer, Co. I: Died: December 1863

1864 (157)

-Thomas J. Thomas, Co. F: Died of Typhoid Fever, 1/22/1864

-Patrick Brown, Co. F: Killed in a railroad accident, 1/24/1864, Paris, Kentucky

-George Livingston, Co. A: Captured; Died in Libby Prison, Richmond, VA, 2/4/1864

-James Shields, Co. E: Murdered in Silver Creek, 2/26/1864

-James W. Evans, Co. F: Died in Hospital, 3/2/1864

-John Burnhart, Co. B: Died 3/8/1864; Buried in Knoxville, Tennessee

-Isaac Arndt, Co. I: Wounded Severely in hip; left on field at Campbell's Station; and Missing in Action, 11/16/1863; Captured, Held Prisoner of War at Andersonville; Not on Muster Out Roll; PA Civil War Service Cards Lists Him As Having Died 3/16/1863 (1864?) at Canard Station, Tennessee.

- John Dietrich, Co. D: Died 3/22/1864

-Michael Wilson, Co. F: Died of "nostalgia, or home-sickness," or of chronic diarrhea, 3/24/1864, at Annapolis, MD.

-William Phillips, Co. G: Died 3/26/1864 in Pottsville

-Reuben Watt, Co. I: Died March 31, 1864, Annapolis, MD

-Thomas S. Lewis, Co. H: Died 3/31/1864 at Philadelphia

-Charles Clark, Co. G: Died: 4/6/1864 in Annapolis, Maryland

-William H. Smith, Co. D: Died in Annapolis, 4/7/1864

-Peter Litchfield, Co. F: Died 4/9/1864, Annapolis, Maryland

-Peter Zimmerman, Co. A: Died: 4/11/1864 in Annapolis, Maryland.

-John Donnelly, Co. H: Died 4/20/1864 at Annapolis, Maryland

-Edward Edwards, Co. H: Died of sunstroke, 4/23/1864 at Annapolis, Maryland

-Lewis J. Garber, Co. I: Died 4/23/1864, Annapolis, Maryland

-Valentine Frantz, Co. E: Committed Suicide, 4/28/1864

-Charles DeLong, Co. H: Died 5/4/1864 at Bristoe Station

-Jno. Burke, Co. E: Killed in Action at the Wilderness, 5/5/1864

-Lawrence Farrell, Co. E: Killed in Action at the Wilderness, 5/6/1864

-Jonathan Kauffman, Co. D: Killed in Action at the Wilderness, 5/6/1864

-David F. Thiel, Co. F: Killed in Action at the Wilderness, 5/6/1864

-Simon Moyer, Co. B: Killed in Action at the Wilderness, 5/7/1864

-Israel Manning, Co. F: Wounded at the Wilderness, 5/6/1864; Died of Wounds 5/8/1864

-Jno. T. Huntzinger, Co. A: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania: 5/12/1864

-Isaac Otto, Co. A: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864.

-Lewis M. Robinhold, Co. A: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania: 5/12/1864

-Charles A.T. St. Clair, Co. A: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania: 5/12/1864

-John Deitz, Co. B: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Frederick Knittle, Co. B: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Matthew Hume, Co. B: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Cpl. David J. Davis, Co. B: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Daniel Wary, Co. B: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Laurentus C. Moyer, Co. B: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-John Morrissey, Co. F: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Richard Williams, Co. F: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Lewis Woods, Co. F: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Jno. Powell, Co. F: Mortally Wounded at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864; Died of Wounds

-James Brennan, Co. F: Died of wounds received at Spotsylvania; Date Unknown

-2nd Lt. Henry C. Jackson, Co. G: Killed in Action Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864      

-William Williams, Co. G: Killed in Action Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864      

-Henry J. Ege, Co. I: Killed in Action, 5/12/1864, Spotsylvania, Virginia

-Jno. W. Henn, Co. K: Killed in Action at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864

-Daniel Brown, Co. C: 5/12/1864; Killed in Action at Spotsylvania

-Michael Mohan, Co. C: 5/20/1864; Died in Washington of wounds received at Spotsylvania

-Sgt. William Kissinger, Co. B: Wounded at Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864; Died of Wounds, 5/24/1864

-Joseph Chester, Co. H: Wounded: 5/15/1864; Died: 5/24/1864 of wounds received in battle

-Frederick Henry, Co. I: Wounded in Action, 5/25/1864; Supposed to have died from wounds in ambulance and buried by the wayside

-Corporal Charles Norrigan/Norrigang, Co. H: Killed in Action at North Anna Crossing, 5/26/1864

-Patrick Doolin, Co. F: Killed in Action at Bethesda Church, 5/30/1864

-Henry McCann, Co. F: Killed in Action at Armstrong Farm, 5/31/1864

-Lieutenant Samuel B. Laubenstein, Co. H: Killed at Shady Grove Church, 5/31/1864

-James Spencer, Co. G: Mortally Wounded Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864; Died of Wounds 5/31/1864

-John Cochran, Co. A: Died: 6/1864 near Cold Harbor, VA.

-David Williams, Co. E: Killed in Action at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-James Bradley, Co. F: Killed in Action at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-Edward G. Pugh, Co. F: Killed in Action at Cold Harbor , 6/3/1864

-William Smith, Co. F: Killed in Action at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-Cpl. Alexander Govan, Co. G: Killed in Action Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-James Allison, Co. G: Killed in Action Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-Joseph Alexander, Co. H: Killed in Action at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-George Dresh, Co. I: Killed in Action, 6/3/1864, Cold Harbor

-William J. Price, Co. I: Killed at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-Benjamin B. Kershner, Co. I: Killed in Action at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-Jacob Lauby/Landy, Co. K: Killed in Action at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864

-Daniel Reedy, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at Cold Harbor; Died: 6/6/1864

-John Clark, Co. I: Wounded Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864; Died of Wounds 6/8/1864

-Major Joseph A. Gilmour: Mortally Wounded in Action, 5/31/1864; Died of Wounds 6/9/1864

-Anthony Wade, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at Cold Harbor; Died: 6/9/1864

-Christian Lauer, Co. B: Died 6/10/1864, of wounds received in action

-Samuel Heckman, Co. B: Died 6/12/1864, of wounds received in action

-George Airgood, Co. A: Wounded at Petersburg; Died of Wounds

-Simon Snyder, Co. A: Died: 6/16/1864 of Wounds Received in Action

-Simon Devlin, Co. F: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/16/1864

-Nathan Rich, Co. K: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/16/1864

-Andrew Wesner, Co. F: Died 6/17/1864

-George Betz, Co. A: Mortally Wounded at Petersburg, 6/17/1864

-John Major, Co. E: Killed at Petersburg, 6/17/1864

-Isaac Lewis, Co. F: Killed in Action at Petersburg 6/17/1864

-Horace Straub, Co. F: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/17/1864

-Anthony Gallagher, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/17/1864

-Jeff. W. Beyerley, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/17/1864

-George W. Morey, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/17/1864

-James Mulholland, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/17/1864

-Arthur Gray, Co. K: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/18/1864

-Thomas Davis, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/18/1864

-Ephraim Whetstone, Co. K: Died June 1864 from wounds received in action

-Daniel Okum, Co. D: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/21/1864

-Lewis Hessinger, Co. A: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 6/22/1864

-William Evans, Co. E: Died of Chronic Diarrhea, 6/22/1864

-Jeremiah Willoner/Willouer, Co. I: Wounded, severely, Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864; Died of Wounds 6/22/1864

-James Boner, Co. I: Wounded 5/30/1864; Died of Wounds 6/22/1864

-Abraham Gecker, Co. C: 6/23/1864; Killed in Action at Petersburg

-John Whitaker, Co. C: 6/23/1864; Killed in Action at Petersburg

-1st Lt. Curtis C. Pollock, Co. G: Mortally Wounded Petersburg 6/17/1864; Died of wounds: 6/23/1864

-William Reysons/Rasons, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at Petersburg, 6/17/1864; Died: 6/24/1864

-William Schwartz, Co. B: Died 6/26/1864

-Daniel J. Kehl, Co. I: Died June 26, 1864, City Point, VA

-William Simpson, Co. G: Killed in Action Petersburg 6/26/1864

-Lt. William H. Hume, Co. B: Mortally Wounded in Action, 5/31/1864 at Totopotomy Creek, VA; Died of -Wounds, 6/30/1864

-James Reagan, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at Petersburg, 6/17/1864; Died: 6/30/1864

-Jonas Z. Raber, Co. D: Died 7/1/1864 in Washington, D.C.

-John Armstrong, Co. G: Mortally Wounded Spotsylvania, 5/12/1864; Died of Wounds 7/1/1864

-1st Lt. Joseph Edwards, Co. I: Wounded at Petersburg, 6/17/1864; Died of Wounds 7/2/1864

-Job Hirst, Co. H: Wounded at Cold Harbor, 6/3/1864; Died 7/3/1864 of wounds received in action

-David Houser, Co. A: Died: 7/4/1864

-Henry Dorward, Co. D: Killed in Action near Petersburg, 7/5/1864

-Nelson Simon, Co. A: Died in Minersville: 7/5/1864.

-James McElrath, Co. C: 7/7/1864; Died from chronic diarrhea in Andersonville Prison

-Sgt. Thomas Tosh, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at Cold Harbor; Died of Wounds: 7/7/1864

-Francis M. Stidham, Co. A: Died 7/10/1864 of Wounds Received in Action

-J. Howard Jones, Co. G: Mortally Wounded Petersburg, 6/17/1864; Died of Wounds: 7/13/1864

-Isaac Bannon/Brannan, Co. H: Killed 7/16/1864 in US General Hospital at Alexandria, VA.

-Charles Quinn, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at Petersburg, 6/17/1864; Died: 7/24/1864

-Lewis Beableheimer, Co. I : Wounded at Petersburg 7/24/1864; Died of Wounds, 7/26/1864

-Captain Benjamin B. Schuck, Co. I: Wounded at Petersburg, 6/25/1864; Died of Wounds, 7/27/1864;

-Lieutenant David B. Brown, Co. H: Killed at Petersburg, 8/5/1864

-Elias Zimmerman, Co. D: Died in Fairfax Seminary Hospital, 8/5/1864

-Isaac K. Beltz, Co. I: Wounded Cold Harbor 6/3/1864; Died of Wounds 8/10/1864

-Solomon Eyster, Co. D: Died 8/15/1864 in Philadelphia

-Edward Sweeney, Co. C: 8/17/1864; Died in Mount Douglass General Hospital

-Frank Boyer, Co. E: Captured at Cold Harbor; Died at Andersonville Prison, 8/17/1864

-Frank Queeny, Co. F: Died of Dropsy, 8/21/1864

-Richard Lee, Co. A: Died in Pottsville, 8/21/1864

-Edward Gallagher, Co. A: Captured; Died in Andersonville Prison, 8/21/1864 from diarrhea

-Daniel Neyer, Co. I: Died at City Point, Virginia, 8/22/1864

-William Davis, Co. H: Wounded at Cold Harbor, VA, 6/3/1864; Died of Wounds: 9/5/1864 

-Henry Reb, Co. H: Died of Paralysis 9/5/1864 on David's Island, New York

-Isaac Fetterman/Fetter, Co. H: Captured; Died in Andersonville Prison, 9/8/1864, from diarrhea

-George Lawrence, Co. G: Died 9/11/1864 at Port Carbon, PA

-William Engle, Co. B: Died at Willet's Point, New York, 9/11 or 12/1864

-William Schneider, Co. H: Died 9/12/1864, of wounds received in action

-Daniel Root, Co. B: Died in Andersonville Prison, 9/14/1864, from diarrhea

-Patrick Farrell, Co. C: 9/21/1864; Died in Washington

-John Darragh, Co. E: Killed in Action at Poplar Grove/Peebles’s Farm, 9/30/1864

-James Heiser, Co. I: Killed in Action, 9/30/1864, Pegram's Farm/Poplar Springs Church

-Lewis W. Kopp, Co. H: Died of Phthsis Pulmonalis 10/1/1864

-Joseph Cobus, Co. I: Wounded and Captured Pegram's Farm, 9/30/1864; Died of Wounds, 10/4/1864

-Daniel Boyer, Co. E: Killed at Petersburg, 10/5/1864

-Daniel M. Bankes, Co. B: Died at Annapolis, MD, 10/6/1864

-Jno. Lloyd, Co. H: Wounded 8/9/1864; Died 10/25/1864 at his home in Schuylkill County.

-David Miller, Co. F: Wounded at Pegram's Farm; Died in Annapolis, 11/6/1864

-David Miller, Co. D: Died in Annapolis, 11/6/1864

-Jacob Hammer, Co. B: Died in Salisbury Prison, NC, 11/12/1864

-Edward McGinnis, Co. E: Captured at Peebles’s Farm; Died in Salisbury Prison, 11/17/1864

-Patrick Crowe, Co. I: Captured Pegram's Farm, 9/30/1864; Died in Salisbury Prison, N.C., 11/19/1864

-Lewis Douglass, Co. I: Died: 11/22/1864

-Philip Heffron, Co. H: Captured at Pegram's Farm, 9/30/1864; Died of starvation in Salisbury Prison, 11/25/1864

-Michael Condron, Co. C: 11/29/1864; Died in Salisbury Prison, NC

-Emmanuel Fox, Co. H: Died 12/5/1864 at Baptist Church Hospital, Alexandria, VA.

-George Hartz, Co. D: Died of Wounds Received in Action at Petersburg, 12/20/1864

-Corporal John F. Dentzer, Co. K: Killed at Petersburg, 12/28/1864

-Robert Devine, Co. E: Died of Chronic Diarrhea, 12/28/1864

-Elijah DeFrehn, Co. F: Captured at Pegram's Farm, 9/30/1864; Died 12/30/1864 in Salisbury Prison, North Carolina


1865 (41)

-Jacob Wigner/Wagner, Co. B: Died 1/1/1865;

-Cpl. William Livingston, Co. C: 1/2/1865; KIA at Fort Sedgwick

-Abraham Sigmund, Co. E: Killed at Petersburg, 1/7/1865

-William D. Lloyd, Co. H: Died 1/10/1865 at Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D.C.

-Andrew Neeley, Co. C: 1/12/1865; Died in Washington of chronic diarrhea

-Samuel Schollenberger, Co. A: Captured; Died in Salisbury Prison, Salisbury, North Carolina: 1/16/1865.

-Joseph Finley/Findley, Co. F: Captured at Pegram's Farm, 9/30/1864; Died in Salisbury Prison, 1/22/1865

-Michael Welsh, Co. F: Captured 9/30/1864 at Pegram's Farm; Died in Salisbury Prison, 2/6/1865

-Charles Aurand, Co. H: Died: 2/9/1865

-William Fulton, Co. F: Captured at Pegram's Farm, 9/30/1864; Died in Salisbury Prison, 2/12/1865

-Corporal Philip Beckman, Co. D: Died in Baltimore of chronic diarrhea, 2/9/1865

-Charles Dintinger, Co. C: 2/11/1865; Died in Salisbury Prison, 11/1864

-George T. Eisenhuth, Co. H: Died of Chronic Diarrhea 2/17/1865

-Nicholas Delaney, Co. K: Killed at Petersburg, 2/23/1865

-Nicholas Gross: Died of Chronic Diarrhea, 3/12/1865, Annapolis, Maryland

-Cpl. Patrick Rogers, Co. E: Died of Disease, 3/25/1865

-1st Lieutenant Henry Graeff, Co. D: Died in Pottsville, 3/26/1865, of Disease Contracted in Confederate Prisons.

-Gilbert Graham, Co. C: 4/1/1865; Died of Wounds

-William Jenkins, Co. F: Died: 4/1/1865

-Sgt. John Homer, Co. B: Died, 4/2/1865, of wounds received in action on 4/1/1865

-Colonel George W. Gowen: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865.

-John Coutts, Co. B: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-Daniel D. Barnett, Co. E: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-David McElvie, Co. F: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-William Donnelly, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-James King, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-George Uhl, Co. H: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-Albert Mack, Co. I: Killed at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-Jacob Reichwein, Co. I :Killed at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-Albert Zimmerman, Co. I: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-Wesley Boyer, Co. I: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865.

-Simon Hoffman, Co. K: Killed in Action at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-Lewis Sterner, Co. A: Died: 4/11/1865; Buried: Odd Fellows’ Cemetery, Tamaqua, PA

-Aaron P. Wagner, Co. D: Mortally Wounded at Petersburg, 4/2/1865; Died of Wounds 4/15/1865 in Washington, D.C.

-Nicholas C. Stephens, Co. B: Died 4/20/1865, of wounds received at Petersburg 4/2/1865

-Cpl. James Nicholson, Co. C: Died: 4/24/1865 of Wounds Received at Petersburg, 4/2/1865

-James Mercer, Co. E: Mortally Wounded at Petersburg, 6/17/1864; Died: 5/21/1865

-John Frehn, Co. B: Died in Philadelphia, 6/8/1865; Veteran

-Jonathan Dress, Co. K: Died 7/5/1865 in Philadelphia, PA

-Corporal Walter P. Aims/Amos, Co. D: Died 7/12/1865 from the effects of starvation and brutality while in Confederate prison

-Charles F. Hesser, Co. D: Died 7/25/1865 in Washington, D.C.


Unknown (7)

-William Moose, Co. E: Wounded at 2nd Bull Run; Died at Home, Date Unknown

-Henry Simpson, Co. A: Killed in Battle.

-Sgt. Stafford Johnson, Co. E: Died at Home, Date Unknown

-William Atkins, Co. B: Died at home, while on furlough; Date Unknown

-Cpl. James Brennan, Co. E: Captured at Knoxville, Died at Andersonville Prison, Date Unknown


-William H. Kohler, Co. F: Captured at Pegram's Farm, 9/30/1864; Died in Salisbury Prison

- Joshua Reed, Co. G: Captured 9/30/1864 at Pegram's Farm; Held in Salisbury Prison; Died at home from effects of prison confinement.             
Gallery of the Dead
Major Joseph Gilmour
Died June 1864 of Wounds  
(Hoptak Collection)


James Allison
Killed at Cold Harbor
One of Four Brothers to Die in War
(Schuylkill County in the Civil War)


George Betz
Mortally Wounded at Petersburg, June 1864
(Hoptak Collection)

Lt. David Brown
Killed at Petersburg August 1865
(Unknown)


Michael Condron
Died in Salisbury Prison, November 1864 
(Hoptak Collection)

George Dentzer
Killed at Antietam
(Courtesy of the Dentzer Family)

John Dentzer
Killed at Petersburg, December 1864
(Courtesy of the Dentzer Family)

Lt. Joseph Edwards
Killed at Petersburg, June 1864
(Hoptak Collection)

Henry Ege
Killed at Spotsylvania
(Courtesy of the Family)

Alexander Govan
Killed at Cold Harbor
(Gould)

Colonel George Gowen
Killed at Petersburg, April 1865
(Gould)

Lt. William Hume
Died June 1864 of Wounds
(Hoptak Collection)

Lt. Henry C. Jackson
Killed at Spotsylvania
(Hoptak Collection)

Lt. Samuel Laubenstein
Killed May 1864
(Ms. Ardith Kull/schuylkillhavenhistory.com)

Lt. Curtis Pollock
Mortally Wounded at Petersburg
June 1864
(Hoptak Collection)

Captain Benjamin B. Schuck
Mortally Wounded August 1864
Petersburg
(Patriotic Order Sons of America)

Simon Snyder
Died June 1864 of Wounds
(Hoptak Collection)

Charles A.T. St. Clair
Killed at Spotsylvania
(Hoptak Collection)

Francis Stidham
Died June 1864 of Wounds
(Hoptak Collection)

George Hartz
Killed at Petersburg
December 1864
(Patriotic Order Sons of America)